Screening and Diagnosis of Cancer

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Screening & Diagnosis of Cancer Bhopal

Cancer screening means testing asymptomatic individuals for the disease. Many different malignancies can be found early by screening, before they show clinical symptoms. Early detection is crucial because it enables prompt treatment, which increases the likelihood of recovery and even cure. The cancer may have started to spread by the time symptoms start to show up, making it more difficult to treat.

Prostate cancer deaths can be decreased with screening with a PSA test, which has been shown to be effective. However, prostate cancer frequently grows so slowly that a man would not experience any issues with it over the course of his lifetime. Because of this, many men who receive treatment for prostate cancer may not benefit from it and may unnecessarily experience its side effects, such as persistent issues with urination and sexual function.

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Humans have a renal system, which consists of the kidneys, which create urine, and the ureters, bladder, and urethra, which allow urine to pass through, be stored, and then be expelled.

The human excretory, or urinary, system shares many similarities with other mammalian species, but it also has its own distinct anatomical and functional traits. The names excretory and urinary underline the system’s capability for elimination. However, the kidneys actively retain some compounds that are just as vital to existence as others that are removed by secreting them into the body.

Two kidneys are part of the system, and they regulate the blood’s electrolyte composition as well as remove excess levels of other compounds. These extra substances are discharged as urine, which travels from the kidneys to the bladder via two thin, muscular tubes known as ureters. Urine is stored in the bladder until it is out through the urethra.


” The ureter serves as a conduit for the passage of urine from the kidneys into the bladder. Each renal organ has its own ureter. The lower end of the ureter is located in the pelvis, whereas the top portion is located in the belly. A diagram of the ureter can enable you to comprehend it.

The ureter in an adult measures between 10 and 12 inches in length. The pipe contains strong, flexible boundaries consisting of fibres, muscles, and mucous membranes.

The distinction between the ureter and the urethra must not be overlooked. Both ureters arise from the same organ in the hereditary condition known as ureter function duplication, which has been present since infancy. When the pathway between the renal and the ureter is blocked, the ureteropelvic junction is impaired because the kidney cannot empty its contents in  ureterovesical junction blockage Urinary flow is impeded if the connection between the ureter and the bladder is affected, which may result in renal failure, secondary to kidney swollen.


After the urine has been filtered by the kidneys, it is collected in the urinary bladder and expelled through urination (where the necessary ions are reabsorbed if physiologically needed through feedback mechanisms found throughout the body and in the nephrons of the kidneys, such as the macula dense). Histologically, the urinary bladder is mucus-free and lined with transitional epithelium.